- An abstract is a compendious summary of a research paper’s substance including its background, purpose, methodology, results, and conclusion.
- It should be one paragraph with a word limit of 175-275.
- Keywords should be provided as a must (no more than 06 words).
- Keywords should be written in lowercase letters (Not applicable to names/scientific names) and should be separated with commas.
- Please do not include subheadings, bullets, lists and header/footer in the abstract.
- Abstract titles should be short, but descriptive. Informative titles, indicating key points are encouraged. Abbreviations should not be used in the title.
- Acronyms should be written in full the first time, mentioned in the text, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses.
- Always follow SI Units.
- Scientific names must be in Italic.
- Use a negative exponent (e.g. kg m -3 ) and do not indicate units as divisions (e.g. kg/m ).
- Chemical formulae should be written in a standard form such as “CaCO3 ”, not as “CaCO3”. Use a zero before decimal points such as “0.45,” not “.45.”
- There shall be no citations or references in the abstract specifically. If there is a need to cite references, please provide the sources in brackets.
- Title: Times New Roman, 12 points, Upper case, Centered text in bold
- Body: Times New Roman, 11 points; Line spacing: 1, one column of text
- Affiliations should be indicated with superscript Arabic numbers appearing at the end of surname/family name.
- A superscript asterisk shout be used for the corresponding author
- Names of affiliations should be given including the country.
- If there is more than one name and address, they should be related by superscript numbers.
Surname INITIALS 1 , Surname INITIALS 1* and Surname INITIALS 2
1 Department, Faculty, University, Country
2 Department, Institute, Country
*email@example.com ( * Email address of the corresponding author)